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## Contributing
Please keep the [issue tracker]( limited to **bug reports**, **feature requests** and **pull requests**.
### Personal Support
If you have personal support or setup questions the best place to ask those are [StackOverflow](
### Bug Reports
When reporting a bug make sure to include information about which browser and operating system you are on as well as the necessary steps to reproduce the issue. If possible please include a link to a sample presentation where the bug can be tested.
### Pull Requests
- Should follow the coding style of the file you work in, most importantly:
- Tabs to indent
- Single-quoted strings
- Should be made towards the **dev branch**
- Should be submitted from a feature/topic branch (not your master)
### Plugins
Please do not submit plugins as pull requests. They should be maintained in their own separate repository. More information here:
Copyright (C) 2020 Hakim El Hattab,, and reveal.js contributors
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
\ No newline at end of file
# reveal.js [![Build Status](]( <a href=""><img src="" alt="Slides" width="160" height="20"></a>
A framework for easily creating beautiful presentations using HTML. [Check out the live demo](
reveal.js comes with a broad range of features including [nested slides](, [Markdown support](, [PDF export](, [speaker notes]( and a [JavaScript API]( There's also a fully featured visual editor and platform for sharing reveal.js presentations at [](
### Supporting reveal.js
This project was started and is maintained by [@hakimel]( with the help of many [contributions from the community]( The best way to support the project is to [become a paying member of](—the reveal.js presentation platform that Hakim is building.
## Table of contents
- [Online Editor](#online-editor)
- [Installation](#installation)
- [Basic setup](#basic-setup)
- [Full setup](#full-setup)
- [Folder Structure](#folder-structure)
- [Instructions](#instructions)
- [Markup](#markup)
- [Markdown](#markdown)
- [Element Attributes](#element-attributes)
- [Slide Attributes](#slide-attributes)
- [Configuration](#configuration)
- [Presentation Size](#presentation-size)
- [Dependencies](#dependencies)
- [Ready Event](#ready-event)
- [Auto-sliding](#auto-sliding)
- [Keyboard Bindings](#keyboard-bindings)
- [Vertical Slide Navigation](#vertical-slide-navigation)
- [Touch Navigation](#touch-navigation)
- [Lazy Loading](#lazy-loading)
- [API](#api)
- [Custom Key Bindings](#custom-key-bindings)
- [Slide Changed Event](#slide-changed-event)
- [Presentation State](#presentation-state)
- [Slide States](#slide-states)
- [Slide Backgrounds](#slide-backgrounds)
- [Parallax Background](#parallax-background)
- [Slide Transitions](#slide-transitions)
- [Internal links](#internal-links)
- [Fragments](#fragments)
- [Fragment events](#fragment-events)
- [Code syntax highlighting](#code-syntax-highlighting)
- [Slide number](#slide-number)
- [Overview mode](#overview-mode)
- [Fullscreen mode](#fullscreen-mode)
- [Embedded media](#embedded-media)
- [Stretching elements](#stretching-elements)
- [Resize Event](#resize-event)
- [postMessage API](#postmessage-api)
- [PDF Export](#pdf-export)
- [Theming](#theming)
- [Speaker Notes](#speaker-notes)
- [Share and Print Speaker Notes](#share-and-print-speaker-notes)
- [Server Side Speaker Notes](#server-side-speaker-notes)
- [Plugins](#plugins)
- [Multiplexing](#multiplexing)
- [Master presentation](#master-presentation)
- [Client presentation](#client-presentation)
- [ server](#socketio-server)
- [MathJax](#mathjax)
- [License](#license)
#### More reading
- [Changelog]( Up-to-date version history.
- [Examples]( Presentations created with reveal.js, add your own!
- [Browser Support]( Explanation of browser support and fallbacks.
- [Plugins](,-Tools-and-Hardware): A list of plugins that can be used to extend reveal.js.
## Online Editor
Presentations are written using HTML or Markdown but there's also an online editor for those of you who prefer a graphical interface. Give it a try at [](
## Installation
The **basic setup** is for authoring presentations only. The **full setup** gives you access to all reveal.js features and plugins such as speaker notes as well as the development tasks needed to make changes to the source.
### Basic setup
The core of reveal.js is very easy to install. You'll simply need to download a copy of this repository and open the index.html file directly in your browser.
1. Download the latest version of reveal.js from <>
2. Unzip and replace the example contents in index.html with your own
3. Open index.html in a browser to view it
### Full setup
Some reveal.js features, like external Markdown and speaker notes, require that presentations run from a local web server. The following instructions will set up such a server as well as all of the development tasks needed to make edits to the reveal.js source code.
1. Install [Node.js]( (9.0.0 or later)
1. Clone the reveal.js repository
$ git clone
1. Navigate to the reveal.js folder
$ cd reveal.js
1. Install dependencies
$ npm install
1. Serve the presentation and monitor source files for changes
$ npm start
1. Open <http://localhost:8000> to view your presentation
You can change the port by using `npm start -- --port=8001`.
### Folder Structure
- **css/** Core styles without which the project does not function
- **js/** Like above but for JavaScript
- **plugin/** Components that have been developed as extensions to reveal.js
- **lib/** All other third party assets (JavaScript, CSS, fonts)
## Instructions
### Markup
Here's a barebones example of a fully working reveal.js presentation:
<link rel="stylesheet" href="css/reveal.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="css/theme/white.css">
<div class="reveal">
<div class="slides">
<section>Slide 1</section>
<section>Slide 2</section>
<script src="js/reveal.js"></script>
The presentation markup hierarchy needs to be `.reveal > .slides > section` where the `section` represents one slide and can be repeated indefinitely. If you place multiple `section` elements inside of another `section` they will be shown as vertical slides. The first of the vertical slides is the "root" of the others (at the top), and will be included in the horizontal sequence. For example:
<div class="reveal">
<div class="slides">
<section>Single Horizontal Slide</section>
<section>Vertical Slide 1</section>
<section>Vertical Slide 2</section>
### Markdown
It's possible to write your slides using Markdown. To enable Markdown, add the `data-markdown` attribute to your `<section>` elements and wrap the contents in a `<textarea data-template>` like the example below. You'll also need to add the `plugin/markdown/marked.js` and `plugin/markdown/markdown.js` scripts (in that order) to your HTML file.
This is based on [data-markdown]( from [Paul Irish]( modified to use [marked]( to support [GitHub Flavored Markdown]( Sensitive to indentation (avoid mixing tabs and spaces) and line breaks (avoid consecutive breaks).
<section data-markdown>
<textarea data-template>
## Page title
A paragraph with some text and a [link](
#### External Markdown
You can write your content as a separate file and have reveal.js load it at runtime. Note the separator arguments which determine how slides are delimited in the external file: the `data-separator` attribute defines a regular expression for horizontal slides (defaults to `^\r?\n---\r?\n$`, a newline-bounded horizontal rule) and `data-separator-vertical` defines vertical slides (disabled by default). The `data-separator-notes` attribute is a regular expression for specifying the beginning of the current slide's speaker notes (defaults to `notes?:`, so it will match both "note:" and "notes:"). The `data-charset` attribute is optional and specifies which charset to use when loading the external file.
When used locally, this feature requires that reveal.js [runs from a local web server](#full-setup). The following example customises all available options:
<section data-markdown=""
Note that Windows uses `\r\n` instead of `\n` as its linefeed character.
For a regex that supports all operating systems, use `\r?\n` instead of `\n`.
#### Element Attributes
Special syntax (through HTML comments) is available for adding attributes to Markdown elements. This is useful for fragments, amongst other things.
<section data-markdown>
<script type="text/template">
- Item 1 <!-- .element: class="fragment" data-fragment-index="2" -->
- Item 2 <!-- .element: class="fragment" data-fragment-index="1" -->
#### Slide Attributes
Special syntax (through HTML comments) is available for adding attributes to the slide `<section>` elements generated by your Markdown.
<section data-markdown>
<script type="text/template">
<!-- .slide: data-background="#ff0000" -->
Markdown content
#### Configuring *marked*
We use [marked]( to parse Markdown. To customise marked's rendering, you can pass in options when [configuring Reveal](#configuration):
// Options which are passed into marked
// See
markdown: {
smartypants: true
### Configuration
At the end of your page you need to initialize reveal by running the following code. Note that all configuration values are optional and will default to the values specified below.
// Display presentation control arrows
controls: true,
// Help the user learn the controls by providing hints, for example by
// bouncing the down arrow when they first encounter a vertical slide
controlsTutorial: true,
// Determines where controls appear, "edges" or "bottom-right"
controlsLayout: 'bottom-right',
// Visibility rule for backwards navigation arrows; "faded", "hidden"
// or "visible"
controlsBackArrows: 'faded',
// Display a presentation progress bar
progress: true,
// Display the page number of the current slide
slideNumber: false,
// Add the current slide number to the URL hash so that reloading the
// page/copying the URL will return you to the same slide
hash: false,
// Push each slide change to the browser history. Implies `hash: true`
history: false,
// Enable keyboard shortcuts for navigation
keyboard: true,
// Enable the slide overview mode
overview: true,
// Vertical centering of slides
center: true,
// Enables touch navigation on devices with touch input
touch: true,
// Loop the presentation
loop: false,
// Change the presentation direction to be RTL
rtl: false,
// See
navigationMode: 'default',
// Randomizes the order of slides each time the presentation loads
shuffle: false,
// Turns fragments on and off globally
fragments: true,
// Flags whether to include the current fragment in the URL,
// so that reloading brings you to the same fragment position
fragmentInURL: false,
// Flags if the presentation is running in an embedded mode,
// i.e. contained within a limited portion of the screen
embedded: false,
// Flags if we should show a help overlay when the questionmark
// key is pressed
help: true,
// Flags if speaker notes should be visible to all viewers
showNotes: false,
// Global override for autoplaying embedded media (video/audio/iframe)
// - null: Media will only autoplay if data-autoplay is present
// - true: All media will autoplay, regardless of individual setting
// - false: No media will autoplay, regardless of individual setting
autoPlayMedia: null,
// Global override for preloading lazy-loaded iframes
// - null: Iframes with data-src AND data-preload will be loaded when within
// the viewDistance, iframes with only data-src will be loaded when visible
// - true: All iframes with data-src will be loaded when within the viewDistance
// - false: All iframes with data-src will be loaded only when visible
preloadIframes: null,
// Number of milliseconds between automatically proceeding to the
// next slide, disabled when set to 0, this value can be overwritten
// by using a data-autoslide attribute on your slides
autoSlide: 0,
// Stop auto-sliding after user input
autoSlideStoppable: true,
// Use this method for navigation when auto-sliding
autoSlideMethod: Reveal.navigateNext,
// Specify the average time in seconds that you think you will spend
// presenting each slide. This is used to show a pacing timer in the
// speaker view
defaultTiming: 120,
// Specify the total time in seconds that is available to
// present. If this is set to a nonzero value, the pacing
// timer will work out the time available for each slide,
// instead of using the defaultTiming value
totalTime: 0,
// Specify the minimum amount of time you want to allot to
// each slide, if using the totalTime calculation method. If
// the automated time allocation causes slide pacing to fall
// below this threshold, then you will see an alert in the
// speaker notes window
minimumTimePerSlide: 0;
// Enable slide navigation via mouse wheel
mouseWheel: false,
// Hide cursor if inactive
hideInactiveCursor: true,
// Time before the cursor is hidden (in ms)
hideCursorTime: 5000,
// Hides the address bar on mobile devices
hideAddressBar: true,
// Opens links in an iframe preview overlay
// Add `data-preview-link` and `data-preview-link="false"` to customise each link
// individually
previewLinks: false,
// Transition style
transition: 'slide', // none/fade/slide/convex/concave/zoom
// Transition speed
transitionSpeed: 'default', // default/fast/slow
// Transition style for full page slide backgrounds
backgroundTransition: 'fade', // none/fade/slide/convex/concave/zoom
// Number of slides away from the current that are visible
viewDistance: 3,
// Number of slides away from the current that are visible on mobile
// devices. It is advisable to set this to a lower number than
// viewDistance in order to save resources.
mobileViewDistance: 2,
// Parallax background image
parallaxBackgroundImage: '', // e.g. "''"
// Parallax background size
parallaxBackgroundSize: '', // CSS syntax, e.g. "2100px 900px"
// Number of pixels to move the parallax background per slide
// - Calculated automatically unless specified
// - Set to 0 to disable movement along an axis
parallaxBackgroundHorizontal: null,
parallaxBackgroundVertical: null,
// The display mode that will be used to show slides
display: 'block'
The configuration can be updated after initialization using the `configure` method:
// Turn autoSlide off
Reveal.configure({ autoSlide: 0 });
// Start auto-sliding every 5s
Reveal.configure({ autoSlide: 5000 });
### Presentation Size
All presentations have a normal size, that is, the resolution at which they are authored. The framework will automatically scale presentations uniformly based on this size to ensure that everything fits on any given display or viewport.
See below for a list of configuration options related to sizing, including default values:
// ...
// The "normal" size of the presentation, aspect ratio will be preserved
// when the presentation is scaled to fit different resolutions. Can be
// specified using percentage units.
width: 960,
height: 700,
// Factor of the display size that should remain empty around the content
margin: 0.1,
// Bounds for smallest/largest possible scale to apply to content
minScale: 0.2,
maxScale: 1.5
If you wish to disable this behavior and do your own scaling (e.g. using media queries), try these settings:
// ...
width: "100%",
height: "100%",
margin: 0,
minScale: 1,
maxScale: 1
### Dependencies
Reveal.js doesn't _rely_ on any third party scripts to work but a few optional libraries are included by default. These libraries are loaded as dependencies in the order they appear, for example:
dependencies: [
// Interpret Markdown in <section> elements
{ src: 'plugin/markdown/marked.js', condition: function() { return !!document.querySelector( '[data-markdown]' ); } },
{ src: 'plugin/markdown/markdown.js', condition: function() { return !!document.querySelector( '[data-markdown]' ); } },
// Syntax highlight for <code> elements
{ src: 'plugin/highlight/highlight.js', async: true },
// Zoom in and out with Alt+click
{ src: 'plugin/zoom-js/zoom.js', async: true },
// Speaker notes
{ src: 'plugin/notes/notes.js', async: true },
// MathJax
{ src: 'plugin/math/math.js', async: true }
You can add your own extensions using the same syntax. The following properties are available for each dependency object:
- **src**: Path to the script to load
- **async**: [optional] Flags if the script should load after reveal.js has started, defaults to false
- **callback**: [optional] Function to execute when the script has loaded
- **condition**: [optional] Function which must return true for the script to be loaded
### Ready Event
A `ready` event is fired when reveal.js has loaded all non-async dependencies and is ready to start navigating. To check if reveal.js is already 'ready' you can call `Reveal.isReady()`.
Reveal.addEventListener( 'ready', function( event ) {
// event.currentSlide, event.indexh, event.indexv
} );
Note that we also add a `.ready` class to the `.reveal` element so that you can hook into this with CSS.
### Auto-sliding
Presentations can be configured to progress through slides automatically, without any user input. To enable this you will need to tell the framework how many milliseconds it should wait between slides:
// Slide every five seconds
autoSlide: 5000
When this is turned on a control element will appear that enables users to pause and resume auto-sliding. Alternatively, sliding can be paused or resumed by pressing »A« on the keyboard. Sliding is paused automatically as soon as the user starts navigating. You can disable these controls by specifying `autoSlideStoppable: false` in your reveal.js config.
You can also override the slide duration for individual slides and fragments by using the `data-autoslide` attribute:
<section data-autoslide="2000">
<p>After 2 seconds the first fragment will be shown.</p>
<p class="fragment" data-autoslide="10000">After 10 seconds the next fragment will be shown.</p>
<p class="fragment">Now, the fragment is displayed for 2 seconds before the next slide is shown.</p>
To override the method used for navigation when auto-sliding, you can specify the `autoSlideMethod` setting. To only navigate along the top layer and ignore vertical slides, set this to `Reveal.navigateRight`.
Whenever the auto-slide mode is resumed or paused the `autoslideresumed` and `autoslidepaused` events are fired.
### Keyboard Bindings
If you're unhappy with any of the default keyboard bindings you can override them using the `keyboard` config option:
keyboard: {
13: 'next', // go to the next slide when the ENTER key is pressed
27: function() {}, // do something custom when ESC is pressed
32: null // don't do anything when SPACE is pressed (i.e. disable a reveal.js default binding)
### Vertical Slide Navigation
Slides can be nested within other slides to create vertical stacks (see [Markup](#markup)). When presenting, you use the left/right arrows to step through the main (horizontal) slides. When you arrive at a vertical stack you can optionally press the up/down arrows to view the vertical slides or skip past them by pressing the right arrow. Here's an example showing a bird's-eye view of what this looks like in action:
<img src="" width="450">
#### Navigation Mode
You can fine tune the reveal.js navigation behavior by using the `navigationMode` config option. Note that these options are only useful for presentations that use a mix of horizontal and vertical slides. The following navigation modes are available:
| Value | Description |